Indigenous peoples through their traditional knowledge maintain strong links with their territories and biodiversity. Nevertheless, indigenous communities are not static: migration and movement are part of their everyday realities. For some, cyclical and seasonal migration has formed part of their livelihood for millennia. Some indigenous peoples, such as the Maasai of Tanzania and Kenya and the Saami of Scandinavia, have adopted semi-nomadic lifestyles, based on constant seasonal movement, as sustainable resources management practices. Indigenous peoples across Central Asian practice vertical seasonal movements from valleys to high mountain plateaus, grazing their unique animal breeds and shaping the biodiversity surrounding them. Transhumance has allowed them to maintain sustainable interactions with local ecosystems over millennia and foster the biodiversity of those land and waterscapes.